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    Go to the top of the page   ID: 20080711190908 Original case in german  More links about this topic on Pubmed (PubMed Reader)
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    Hereditary multiple exostoses
    Roland Talanow. Hereditary multiple exostoses. PedRad [serial online] vol 8, no. 7.
    URL: www.PedRad.info/?search=20080711190908


     
     Pediatric Radiology CasesImages to this case: There are X-Ray-images available for this case. [ X-Ray ] There are MRI-images available for this case. [ MRI ] View all modalities [ All ]   
     Pediatric Radiology CasesAuthor/s:

    Roland Talanow (The Cleveland Clinic/Cleveland/USA)  

     
     Pediatric Radiology CasesEmail Address:

    Viewable for logged on visitors (Log on)  

     
     Pediatric Radiology CasesAge:

    17 Years  

     
     Pediatric Radiology CasesGender:

    Male  

     
     Pediatric Radiology CasesRegion-Organ:

    Leg-Bones  

     
     Pediatric Radiology CasesMost likely etiology:

    congenital  

     
     Pediatric Radiology CasesHistory: *

    17 year old male with intermittent pain over lumps on his lower extremities.  

     
     Pediatric Radiology CasesPathomorphology or Pathophysiology of this disease : *

    Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is an inherited autosomal dominant disorder where multiple osteochondromas throughout the skeleton are present.

    The pathogenesis of HME is poorly understood, and theories range from isolated islets of cartilaginous tissues from the diaphyseal surface of growing cartilage, a defect in the anchoring of germinal cartilage cells to the physis, or physical-stress theory that focal accumulations of embryonic connective tissue at sites of tendon attachments are converted to hyaline cartilage.

    Patients with HME may present with short stature and asymmetric growth at the knees and ankles, which may lead to deformities. The osteochondromas are located close to the metaphyses, and they may be sessile or pedunculated. The cortex of the lesion is continuous with the cortex of the bone with a homogeneous continuation of the medulla which is a characteristic feature.

    Patients with HME may have 2 to 100s of osteochondromas. Most solitary osteochondromas are discovered incidentally in children and adolescents. Usually, the patients present with a painless skeletal swelling or a slowly growing mass. Fractures, bony deformities, bursa formation, neurologic and vascular injuries, and malignant transformation are complications of osteochondromas. The risk of malignant degeneration is 1-20%. The likelihood of malignant transformation is greater with HME than with other conditions. Most transformations are to a chondrosarcoma, but other sarcomata may complicate the disease. Most patients with this malignant transformation present with a painful mass. Malignant transformation occur only rarely in the first decade and after fifth decades of life.

    Malignancy should be suggested and must be assessed if an osteochondroma grows in a mature skeleton. Additionally, an osteochondroma with a cartilaginous cap greater than 1 cm in an adult should be carefully assessed because this finding has also been associated with an increased risk of malignancy.





    Radiographic features:
    Plain radiographs demonstrate pedunculated or sessile bony excrescence with well-defined margins. In adults, the cartilage cap often contains flecks of calcification. Osteochondromas arise from the surface of the bones contain spongiosa and cortex that appear continuous with the parent bone.
    Most common sites for osteochondromas are the metaphysis at bony sites of tendon and ligamentous attachments. Osteochondromas usually point away from its point of attachment towards the diaphysis with the metaphysis of the affected tubular bone often widened.


    Serial radiographs showing an enlarging osteochondroma with irregularity of its margin and accompanied by a soft tissue mass should alert the clinician to sarcomatous transformation, particularly when the finding is accompanied by pain. Bone erosions and irregularity or scattered calcification are further clues of malignant transformation.

    Often, there are associated defects of bone modeling and bony deformities, in particular bilateral coxa valga and widening of the proximal femoral metaphysis.


    Computer tomography:
    CT can provide excellent bone detail of osteochondromas developing in the spine, shoulder, or pelvis despite the complex nature of these bones.


    Magnetic resonance imaging:
    MRI is useful for assessing continuity of the cortical and medullary bone in an osteochondroma with the parent bone. Cartilage in the cap has high signal intensity on T2-weighted spin-echo MRI. This characteristic allows measurement of the cap, which is an important consideration in malignant transformation. MRI also provides information about inflammation in reactive bursa formation, impingement syndromes, arterial and venous compromise. This study is the method of choice for evaluating compression of the spinal cord, nerve roots, and peripheral nerves.

    MRIs contribute only to the diagnostic workup of cases in which malignant change is suspected because osteochondromas have a characteristic appearance on plain radiographs.

    With chondrosarcomas, the chondroid origin of tumors may be identified with the lobular high signal intensity. Short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) images show peritumoral soft tissue edema in 83% of chondrosarcomas. Muscle impingement should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pain in association with osteochondromatosis. On T2-weighted MRIs, muscle impingement is depicted as increased signal intensity within the muscle.


    Cave:
    A known complication is the increasing size of osteochondromas due to bursitis, and a false-positive diagnosis of malignant transformation has been reported with both CT and MRI. Therefore, ultrasonographic evaluation is always recommended for the evaluation of enlarging solitary osteochondromas.  

     
     Pediatric Radiology CasesRadiological findings: *


    X-Ray 1 <- view X-Ray 1

    X-Ray 1: Frontal radiograph of the knees demonstrate bilateral pedunculated bony excrescence with cortical continuity and well-defined margins. The peduncles are oriented away from the knee joints.





    X-Ray 2 <- view X-Ray 2

    X-Ray 2: Lateral radiograph of the right knee demonstrates pedunculated bony excrescence with cortical continuity and well-defined margins.






    MRI 1 <- view MRI 1

    MRI 1: T1 weighted coronal image demonstrates a pedunculated bony excrescence with cortical continuity and well-defined margins at the lateral aspect of the distal femoral metaphasis. The bone marrow and surrounding soft tissue demonstrate normal signal intensity.






    MRI 2 <- view MRI 2

    MRI 2: T2 weighted axial image demonstrates pedunculated bony excrescences with cortical continuity and well-defined margins at the medial aspect of the proximal tibia and lateral aspect of the proximal fibula. The bone marrow and surrounding soft tissue demonstrate normal signal intensity.






    MRI 3 <- view MRI 3

    MRI 3: T2 weighted coronal image demonstrates a pedunculated bony excrescence with cortical continuity and well-defined margins at the lateral aspect of the distal femoral metaphasis. The bone marrow and surrounding soft tissue demonstrate normal signal intensity.






    MRI 4 <- view MRI 4

    MRI 4: Proton density (PD) weighted coronal image demonstrates a pedunculated bony excrescence with cortical continuity and well-defined margins at the lateral aspect of the distal femoral metaphasis. The bone marrow and surrounding soft tissue demonstrate normal signal intensity.



     

     
     Pediatric Radiology CasesDiagnosis confirmation:

    Total constellation (Consens)  

     
     Pediatric Radiology CasesWhich DD would be also possible with the radiological findings: *

    Fetal alcohol syndrome, Turner syndrome (exostosis of tibia), Tuberous sclerosis (exostosis of long bones), Acrodysostosis , radiation-induced osteochondromas, traumatic bony injury/fractures  

     
     Pediatric Radiology CasesCourse / Prognosis / Frequency / Other : *

    Osteochondromas are the most common bone tumors in children. They may be solitary or multiple. They arise from tubular bones and are metaphyseal in location.

    Most frequently affected are long tubular bones, particularly the metaphysis. The sites of predilection include distal femoral metaphysis, proximal humeral metaphysis, tibia, and fibula.

    In 10% of patients, the small bones of the hands and feet are also affected, the scapula only in 1% of cases. The spine is involved only in 2%, but it can lead to cord compression.

    Osteochondromas can be resected with an osteotome. However, this should be performed only when the skeleton has matured, unless the lesion is symptomatic. If resection is performed in an immature skeleton, care should be taken to avoid damaging the epiphyseal plate because severe growth deformity may result.  

     
     Pediatric Radiology CasesComments of the author about the case:

    N/A  

     
     Pediatric Radiology CasesFirst description / History: *

    HME was first described by John Hunter in his lecture on the principles of surgery in 1786. Boyer published in 1814 the first description of a family with HME, followed by Guy's description of a second family in 1825.  

     
     Pediatric Radiology CasesLiterature:

    1. Medline: Medline
    Bovee JV, Hogendoorn PC
    The neoplastic pathogenesis of solitary and multiple osteochondromas
    J Pathol. Mar 2000;190(4):516-7.

    2. Medline: Medline
    Shapiro F, Simon S, Glimcher MJ
    Hereditary multiple exostoses. Anthropometric, roentgenographic, and clinical aspects
    J Bone Joint Surg Am. Sep 1979;61(6A):815-24.

    3. Medline: Medline
    Peterson HA
    Multiple hereditary osteochondromata
    Clin Orthop. Feb 1989;(239):222-30.

    4. Medline: Medline
    Multiple hereditary exostoses: http://www.emedicine.com/radio/topic496.htm

    5. Medline: Medline
    Solitary exostosis: http://www.emedicine.com/orthoped/TOPIC528.HTM  

     
     Pediatric Radiology CasesKeywords: *

    hereditary exostoses, multiple exostoses, exostosis, HME, multiple osteocartilaginous exostoses, diaphyseal achalasia, osteochondromatosis, multiple hereditary osteochondromata, multiple congenital osteochondromata, diaphyseal aclasis, chondral osteogenic dysplasia of direction, chondral osteoma, deforming chondrodysplasia, dyschondroplasia exostosing disease, exostotic dysplasia, multiple osteomatoses osteogenic disease, familial bony spurs, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica, Trevor disease, Trevor's disease, child, childhood, pediatric radiology  

     
     Pediatric Radiology Cases Cite this article:

    Roland Talanow. Hereditary multiple exostoses. PedRad [serial online] vol 8, no. 7.
    URL: www.PedRad.info/?search=20080711190908  

     
     Pediatric Radiology Cases Read similar articles: with corresponding keywords
    in the same field: Leg-Bones
    or in the region: Leg
    or in the tissue/organ: Bones
    or with the etiology: congenital
     
     Pediatric Radiology CasesImages to this case: There are X-Ray-images available for this case. [ X-Ray ] There are MRI-images available for this case. [ MRI ] View all modalities [ All ]   

    Thanks to Martina Paetzel, M.D. for translating this case!

     
    Hereditary multiple exostoses
    Roland Talanow. Hereditary multiple exostoses. PedRad [serial online] vol 8, no. 7.
    URL: www.PedRad.info/?search=20080711190908


     

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    Hereditary multiple exostoses  
     
    Hereditary multiple exostoses
    Roland Talanow. Hereditary multiple exostoses. PedRad [serial online] vol 8, no. 7.
    URL: www.PedRad.info/?search=20080711190908


     
     
    Hereditary multiple exostoses
    Roland Talanow. Hereditary multiple exostoses. PedRad [serial online] vol 8, no. 7.
    URL: www.PedRad.info/?search=20080711190908


     

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    Hereditary multiple exostoses
    Roland Talanow. Hereditary multiple exostoses. PedRad [serial online] vol 8, no. 7.
    URL: www.PedRad.info/?search=20080711190908


     




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